Tuesday, December 16, 2014

People Who Minister – 2 Tim 4:19-22

Greet Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus. Erastus remained at Corinth, but Trophimus I left sick at Miletus. Make every effort to come before winter. Eubulus greets you, also Pudens and Linus and Claudia and all the brethren. The Lord be with your spirit. Grace be with you. (NASU)
Prisca and Aquila
Paul was well acquainted with Prisca (Pricilla) and Aquila. He first met them at Corinth where they settled down after Claudius forced all Jews out of Rome. He stayed with them and worked in their tent making business. This enabled Paul to evangelize during his free time (Acts 18:1-4). They then accompanied Paul back to Ephesus where they stayed and Paul continued on (Acts 18:18-19). After Paul left, they heard Apollos speak but they also took him aside and corrected his theology (Acts 18:26). Their influence on the Gospel is significant. They used their business to aid Paul, they traveled extensively ending back in Rome (Rom 16:3), they risked their lives for Paul (Rom 16:4), they had sound theology and influenced Apollos.
How can we be like them? We many not all have businesses where we can hire people who need work while they concentrate on their ministry. But we can support missionaries. Paul was supported by the Philippian church (Phil 4:15-16); they set a good example for us. Perhaps you know of a young seminary student or family that could use some help while they are going to school training for a life of ministry. We should not fear when we are forced to pick up our family and move to a new city or even country. What would have happened to the gospel if Claudius had not kicked them out of Rome? Would they have met and helped Paul or Apollos? When we travel, even if it is to the grocery store, we should look for opportunities to serve others and engage people with the good news of Jesus. It isn’t all about evangelism either. Sometimes we need to take the time to disciple others.

Onesiphorus
May the Lord show special kindness to Onesiphorus and all his family because he often visited and encouraged me. He was never ashamed of me because I was in chains. When he came to Rome, he searched everywhere until he found me. May the Lord show him special kindness on the day of Christ's return. And you know very well how helpful he was in Ephesus. (2 Tim 1:16-18 NLT)
We don’t know much about Onesiphorus other than this brief description and 2 Timothy 1:16-18 and 4:19, which mentions his household. Paul wanted the Lord to show kindness to him and his family. People generally want kindness for people who have been kind. The makes me believe that Onesiphorus was a kind person and that kindness was reflected in his family. We can be like Onesiphorus when we are kind to others, especially to our own families. One interesting thing about being kind is that is a virtue that rewards us because, “A kind man benefits himself” (Prov 11:17 NIV).
Kindness goes out of its way to help others. Since Onesiphorus lived in Ephesus and the context suggests that he visited Paul more than once, it is possible that he made several trips to bring aid to Paul while he was in prison there. The first time, he didn’t even know where to find him. How many times do we go out of our way to visit prisoners, missionaries, elderly, hospitals, or even across the street to show kindness or comfort to others? Or do you make a half-hearted effort and when the circumstances are not perfect, claim that the Lord closed the door? Many times, a simple act of kindness can open a door to minister to a hurting person or share the Gospel with someone who is ready to hear from someone who is living their life like Jesus – as was Onesiphorus.
Another thing about Onesiphorus, he worked in the local church and didn’t use his expanded ministry as an excuse to neglect involvement his local congregation. I get it, we are all busy, it is difficult to go to work, minister in our neighborhood, and serve in the church. How difficult was it for Onesiphorus? I wonder how long it took to travel from Ephesus to Rome and back. I wonder how much time he had for his family? Yet, he was helpful in his church.
Erastus and Trophimus
So he sent into Macedonia two of those who ministered to him, Timothy and Erastus, but he himself stayed in Asia for a time. (Acts 19:22 NKJV)
Erastus took some missionary journeys as well. He went with Timothy to Macedonia for some time, but ended up in Corinth, where he was the city treasurer (Rom 16:23). Note that he was one of many people who ministered to Paul during his missionary journeys. Trophimus is also one who accompanied Paul on his journeys (Acts 20:4, 21:29). Trophimus is an example of someone who is willing to go and then suffers the consequences of travels, illness. Paul had to leave him in  Miletus.
As we look at different people who help Paul, we find diversity. Erastus was the city treasurer. He was in a position of trust in the government. I see the same kinds of activity among many Christians today. Some are well-know, even celebrities who give their time to help the cause of Christ. These are people who have found the balance between their work, families, and ministry. While we often think that being successful in our work requires putting it before ministry and even family, those who want to be most effective in their lives know that all three are needed in the right balance. Perhaps those who are in full-time ministry find it hardest to balance their live since they can’t see the division between ministry and work. Often, they end up neglecting their families.
Trophimus illustrates the risks that we take when we engage in reaching out beyond our comfortable surroundings. He fell ill while traveling with Paul. He isn’t the only one, Epaphroditus also became ill while helping Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome (Phil 2:25). In fact, he almost died.
Women
… Euodia and Syntyche … help these two women, for they worked hard with me in telling others the Good News. They worked along with Clement and the rest of my co-workers, whose names are written in the Book of Life. (Phil 4:2-3 NLT)
Paul often speaks of the women who helped him spread the Gospel. While these two were having some problems, the important thing to see is that Paul called them co-workers. He didn’t look down on them because they were women, as many would contend. Without the assistance and ministry of women, I’m convinced that Gospel would have failed. Not that Jesus’ ministry could fail because He is sovereign, but it is because He has shown throughout His Word that women are an integral part of His plan. In the Old Testament, God’s plan of redemption and women’s integration in that plan was announced to Satan (Gen 3:15). The lessons we have from the O. T. do not just include men, but women of faith and action.
Sarah, Rebecca, Tamar, Jochebed, Miriam, Ruth, the widow of Zeraphath (1 Kings 17:8), the Shunammite woman (2 Kings 4:8-10), and Esther are some of the women that God used to bring about His plan. Each of these had a mission to accomplish. While they were not perfect, just as the men were not, their parts were no less important than the men’s parts.
When we come to the New Testament, we find the same thing. Obviously, we often focus on the Virgin Mary, as is appropriate. However, we also need to see how other women were involved. The prophetess, Ana, immediately knew who Jesus was at His dedication and spoke to others about Him (Luke 2:36-38). Mary sat at Jesus’ feet clearly showing that disciples were not just men. Luke 8:2-3 records that women of wealth supported Jesus’ ministry. The book of Acts is full of women who assisted in ministry (Dorcas in Acts 9:36), were some of the first converts, and opened their homes to Paul (Lydia in Acts 16:14-15). Prominent women became some of the first converts in Thessalonica (Acts 17:4) and Berea (Acts 17:12).
With Your Spirit
And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age. (Matt 28:20b NIV)
I hear some people say that we don’t need to ask God to provide what He has already promised. I get it, but Paul pronounced a benediction on Timothy at the end of his letter that echoes Jesus’ promise to be with all of us to the end of the age. If it is already promised, why would Paul do this? Certainly, it is a reminder that Jesus is with us to the end. Whatever our situation, we know He is right there with us.
Paul said “the Lord be with your spirit” (2 Tim 4:22). “The term ‘Lord’ (kurios) was a term pregnant with meaning among Greek-speaking Jews. It was the word used in the LXX [Septuagint] to translate the tetragrammaton (YHWH, ‘LORD’).”[1] The New Testament uses the phrase, “Lord Jesus,” 118 times in the King James Version. There is no doubt that when Paul pronounced this blessing, he was not speaking just of God the Father, but of the Trinity, inclusively of Jesus because he often spoke of the Lord Jesus. Even though Jesus has a physical body, it is a resurrected glorified body. Because He is God, He is just as omnipresent as God the Father and the Holy Spirit. Jesus is with us now and to the end of the age. It is a fitting benediction for Paul’s last letter and a reminder to us.
What is our spirit? There are many definitions, but this one sums it up well. “The nonphysical part of a person that is the seat of emotions and character; the soul … such a part regarded as a person's true self and as capable of surviving physical death or separation”[2]). This agrees with Unger as he states, “The term soul specifies that in the immaterial part of man that concerns life, action, and emotion. Spirit is that part related to worship and divine communion. The two terms are often used interchangeably, the same functions being ascribed to each.”[3] When I see a reference to my spirit in the Bible, I know that it is me.
May the Lord Jesus be with your spirit.

[1] Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum, and Charles L Quarles, The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown (Nashville: B & H Publishing Group, 2009), 19941-19942, Kindle.
[2] The New Oxford American Dictionary, Kindle ed., s.v. “spirit,” (Oxford University Press, 2010).
[3] Merrill F. Unger, The New Unger's Bible Dictionary, Updated ed., s.v. “Spirit,” ed. R. K. Harrison (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2006), Biblesoft.

Thursday, December 4, 2014

God Is Our Support – 2 Tim 4:16-18

At my first defense no one supported me, but all deserted me; may it not be counted against them. But the Lord stood with me and strengthened me, so that through me the proclamation might be fully accomplished, and that all the Gentiles might hear; and I was rescued out of the lion's mouth. The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed, and will bring me safely to His heavenly kingdom; to Him be the glory forever and ever. Amen. (NASU)
Support
I am a reproach among all my enemies, But especially among my neighbors, And am repulsive to my acquaintances; Those who see me outside flee from me. (Ps 31:11 NKJV)
Have you ever felt like there was no one who supported you? Look at the anguish in these words. Paul – all deserted me. David – I am repulsive. I’ve had neighbors who condemned my actions, friends who thought that I was completely wrong in how I handled a situation. Fortunately, the long-term proved that I had acted correctly. However, in the moment it is hard to do what you know is right when everyone is telling you it is wrong.

                If the Lord had not been my help, my soul would soon have dwelt in the land of silence. (Ps 94:17 RSV)
Suicide is one of the dangers many people face when they feel that they have no support. According to the U.S. government’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), suicide was the 10th leading cause of death in 2010 with 39,518 deaths.[1] The number for 2012 was 40,600 and was still the 10th leading cause of death. The author of Psalm 94 is not identified, but it could have been David, a man after God’s own heart. He admitted that if he had not found support from the Lord in the midst of his distress, he would have died. As you read this Psalm and others, you will definitely come away with the idea that he was not only talking about being killed by his enemies but also the affliction of his soul (vs. 19).

Brethren, if a man is overtaken in any trespass, you who are spiritual restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness, considering yourself lest you also be tempted. Bear one another's burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ. (Gal 6:1-2 NKJV)
Let’s turn it on end. Have you ever deserted someone who needed support? On this end, when we don’t know the full story, it is easy to judge others and provide no support. I’ll admit it is hard to support someone in some of life’s difficulties. Looking at the second chapter of Job, we can see two methods of support for someone who is going through trouble. Job’s wife suggested that he curse God and die (Job 2:9). This is terrible advice but it is what many of us may receive from the world. When we have been raised in an environment that teaches us that our prosperity is a sign of God’s pleasure with us, difficulty and testing says God doesn’t approve of us or that our faith is weak. Fortunately, Job had a better understand and knew that both good and bad are under God’s sovereign control (Job 2:10).
And they sat with him on the ground seven days and seven nights, and no one spoke a word to him, for they saw that his suffering was very great. (Job 2:13 RSV)
Job’s three friends came and sat with him in silence for seven days. There is both good and bad using this as an example. There are times a person needs to have others near without trying to offer reasons for the calamity he is facing. However, understanding the concepts of the ancient Near Eastern thought sheds a different light on these seven days of silence. Eliphaz was from Edom, Bildad was probably lived near Uz and was Arab, and Zophar was from Naamah in north Arabia.[2] Based on this, it is extremely unlikely if Job’s friends were monotheistic worshipers of Yahweh but were aware of Him. They could have been like Nebuchadnezzar who acknowledged God (Dan 4:2) but also worshipped other gods (Dan 3:1-7). Their problem is that they didn’t have the written Word of God. They had traditions and the influence of all sorts of religions around them to form their concepts of God. Therefore, they didn’t really know what pleased or angered God.[3] So their seven days of silence may very well have been a time of waiting to see if Job died or not. If he died then they could confidently say Job died because of his error in appeasing God during his life. If he lived, well, then they needed to confront him with what they believed was his sinfulness. Their culture required that a person confess sin even if they didn’t know what it was in order to be restored.[4] God rebuked the three friends because of their ignorance of Him (Job 42:7).
We can conclude that the friend’s constant attempt to get Job to confess to some sin that he didn’t commit and their concepts of God were way out of line. But, what about the seven days of silence? Was that totally wrong? No, there are times when silence is good medicine. “It is foolish to belittle one's neighbor; a sensible person keeps quiet” (Prov 11:12 NLT).
Many people today say that we can’t comfort others unless we have gone through the same problems. They point to Paul’s statement that God is the God of all comfort and that He comforts us so that we can comfort others (2 Cor 1:3-4). While that is true, does that mean that we can only offer comfort to those who have gone through the same afflictions that we have? No, that is the product of our postmodern thought process that emphasizes relations and the concept that we each have our own truth. Therefore, your comfort only works if it is born out of the same conflict that I have had.
I myself am satisfied about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge and able to instruct one another. (Rom 15:14 ESV)
 God has provided His Word to us so that we will know how to address all kinds of problems. According to Romans 15:14, if we are living godly lives (full of goodness) and know the Word (filled with knowledge), then we will be competent to instruct others. Going back to Galatians 6:1-2, remember that it says, “you who are spiritual restore … in a spirit of gentleness.” Perhaps the world is right. If a person is not spiritual (i.e. a mature Christian), then they can’t offer comfort unless they have been through the same suffering. However, that is not God’s Word to believers. There are occasions when we can observe the wisdom of Job’s friends and be silent in order to help someone in a spirit of gentleness. So let us be wise when we comfort but not neglect God’s Word either, for He is sufficient for all our needs, whether it is to minister to others or get us through our own trials (2 Cor 3:5, 9:8, 12:9).
Purpose
But now as the prophets foretold and as the eternal God has commanded, this message is made known to all Gentiles everywhere, so that they too might believe and obey him. (Rom 16:26 NLT)
God specifically called Paul to take the message of salvation to the Gentiles (Acts 9:15). But salvation for non-Jews was nothing new. Paul called it a mystery in Romans 16:25 and Ephesians 3:9, but it was plain to anyone who was looking for it. In Genesis 18:18, the Lord slipped in one of the first clues when He said, “all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him” (ESV). David spoke of a time when all the nations will turn to the Lord and worship Him (Ps 22:27-28).
For I know the plans I have for you, says the Lord, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope. Then you will call upon me and come and pray to me, and I will hear you. You will seek me and find me; when you seek me with all your heart. (Jer 29:11-13 RSV)
When we face trials and it seems like there are only opponents around us, when our friends have abandoned us, we need to remember God’s purpose for us. But before addressing His purpose for us, I must digress regarding this verse. Note that the RSV, NAS, and ESV say plans for welfare. KJV and NKJV say peace. NLT says good. However, the most often quoted version I have heard is the NIV, which says prosperity. Synonyms for welfare are wellbeing, interests, benefit, happiness, good, and safety. Synonyms for peace are tranquility, harmony, and serenity to mention a few. Now compare the synonyms of prosperity, which are wealth, affluence, opulence, and riches. What a significant difference between the meaning of the NIV and the other translations! The Hebrew word used is shalown or shalom.[5] It should look familiar, as most people recognize it as a greeting of peace. It’s a good idea to check out other translations when studying your Bible. I’m not picking on the NIV, as other translations have similar poor word choices. We need to look at the context to see what the most appropriate translation is.
These verses are taken as an individual promise, but the context of the verses is to the Jerusalem exiles in Babylon (Jer 29:1). God was very specific. He would return them to Jerusalem after 70 years (Jer 29:10). Those who were not in exile were promised “sword, famine, and pestilence” (Jer 29:17 ESV). How many times have we ever claimed that promise for ourselves? When the captives returned, what was the result? According to Nehemiah, “The remnant there in the province who had survived the exile is in great trouble and shame. The wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates are destroyed by fire" (Neh 1:3 ESV). Does this sound like prosperity? As time passed, the conditions improved, but prosperity would not be the description I would use. God took care of them but it was nothing compared to the reign of Solomon. Their welfare improved but prosperity occurred for only a few.
The point is, when we start looking for God’s purpose, we can’t take random verses from the Bible and claim that this is his purpose. We need to look at the overall message of God’s Word to understand our purpose. Colossians 1:15 says that all things were created for Jesus. Revelation 4:11 (KJV) says that everything was created for God’s pleasure. (Did you notice that I picked the translation that used the specific phrase I wanted? Be on guard!) What would you say is your overall purpose based on these verses? If it is to bring glory to God, then you are right. How is that to be done? “Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter: Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man” (Eccl 12:13 KJV). There are some very good passages in the Bible that sum up how we keep his commandments. See 1 Thessalonians 5:12-24 or Romans 12 – 13.
We can continue talking about our purpose and glorifying God by doing His commands. The ones mentioned above all depend on following Jesus command to love God and others (Matt 22:37-40). While loving God is the most important, Jesus had to remind us that loving others can’t be neglected. He repeated the command three times (John 13:34, 15:12, 115:7). Least we get off track and think that by being all loving with one another and that is all it takes to get saved, we need to remember that without a saving relationship with Jesus in the first place, we will not be able to love God or others. We must first believe in Jesus (John 6:29).
Rescue
The Lord will protect you from all evil; He will keep your soul. (Ps 121:7 NASB)
Paul’s expectation of rescue appears to be from the evil perpetrated on him by others. He has spoken of those who abandoned him, caused him great harm, and that his life may soon be over. Certainly, these deeds could be considered evil. Psalm 121:7 certainly sounds like a fitting quote for his circumstances. The Psalm’s implication is a physical protection but also a clarification that the soul is more important than the physical. Paul knows where he is headed, heaven. As we think about our purpose and fulfilling what God wants in our lives, we must keep our eyes on the ultimate goal and not become distracted by the crazy things that happen here on earth. It doesn’t mean we ignore them, but we have to keep them in an eternal perspective (2 Cor 4:16-18, Col 3:1-4).
Paul may also have been thinking about his first letter to the Corinthians where he said that God would not let them be tempted beyond what they could handle, but always gave them a way out (1 Cor 10:13). In this sense, rescue would be from sinful desires or attitudes. In prison, Paul could have easily become depressed and despaired of life, or bitter and angry because of those who deserted him. The word used for temptation is peirasmos. It is the same word that is used when translating Jesus’ words in the Lord ’s Prayer for temptation (Matt 6:13), testing for the seed sown on the rock (Luke 8:13), and trials when speaking to the apostles who stuck with him (Luke 22:28). James used the same word when speaking of our trial (James 1:2) and our temptations (James 1:12).[6] So, whether we are talking about difficulties of life or temptations. We know that the Lord is the one that keeps our souls.
Be sober-minded; be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same kinds of suffering are being experienced by your brotherhood throughout the world. (1 Peter 5:8-9 ESV)
 It is also possible that Paul read Peter’s first letter. Paul knew he was rescued from the lion’s mouth, an allusion to Satan. Paul could take comfort in knowing that his suffering was not something that was strange but a very huge part of the Christian life. When Peter wrote, persecutions were most likely localized. When Paul was about to be executed, persecution was the way of the Roman government under Nero. Yet Paul could say he had been rescued from Satan. This is a clear indication that Satan cannot defeat us. Our salvation is secure in the midst of all kinds of trials, temptations, and testing.
For I am convinced that neither death nor life, neither angels nor demons, neither the present nor the future, nor any powers, neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus our Lord. (Rom 8:38-39 NIV)
How many people do you think could be staring an unjust death sentence in the face (or terminal illness) and confidently say that the Lord would save them from every evil deed? Paul focused on the fact that his home was in heaven. There wasn’t anything in this life or anything that could happen to him after death that would prevent him from going to heaven. He lived in a time when myths abounded. There were underworld gods or entities that supposedly presented trial to people that they had to pass in order to enter into whatever “heaven” they imagined. These people or demonic entity could do nothing to him that would prevent him from going to heaven. There are no mountains to climb or crevices to cross. No magical powers, no beasts, nothing, was going to stop Paul from a safe entry into God’s eternal kingdom.

Do you have that confidence for this life and the afterlife? If you don’t then you need to turn to Jesus. He has already defeated Satan, paid for your sins (Col 2:13-15), and intercedes for you ( Rom 8:34, 1 John 2:1).  However, there is a catch. When you turn to Him, it is an all or nothing trust that must result in obedience (Luke 6:46). My prayer is that you will and have the assurance, just as Paul did, that you are going to heaven.

[1] “Faststats - Suicide and Self-Inflicted,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accessed November 14, 2014, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/suicide.htm.
[2] Merrill F. Unger, The New Unger's Bible Dictionary, Updated ed., s.v. “Eliphaz, Bildad, Zophar,” ed. R. K. Harrison (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2006), Biblesoft.
[3] John H. Walton, Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2006), 2521-2534, Kindle.
[4] Ibid, 2876-2879.
[5] OT:7965 shalowm (shaw-lome'); or shalom (shaw-lome'); from OT:7999; safe, i.e. (figuratively) well, happy, friendly; also (abstractly) welfare, i.e. health, prosperity, peace. (Biblesoft's New Exhaustive Strong's Numbers and Concordance with Expanded Greek-Hebrew Dictionary, (2006 Biblesoft, Inc. and International Bible Translators, Inc.)
[6] NT:3986 peirasmos, Thayer's Greek Lexicon, Electronic Database, (Biblesoft: 2006).

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

What to Do about Opponents to the Gospel – 2 Tim 4:14-15

Alexander the coppersmith did me much harm; the Lord will repay him according to his deeds. Be on guard against him yourself, for he vigorously opposed our teaching. (NASU)
Opponents
Hymenaeus and Alexander are two examples. I threw them out and handed them over to Satan so they might learn not to blaspheme God. (1 Tim 1:20 NLT)
No one knows whether the Alexander in Second Timothy is the same as the one in First. He may even have been the same Alexander of Acts 19:33 who attempted to quell the riot in Ephesus. If all three were the same, then we would know that he was a Jew (Acts 19:33) who probably converted to Christianity then departed from the faith (1 Tim 1:19-20) and then greatly opposed Paul’s teaching (2 Tim 4-14-15).
For some, Paul’s words against Alexander may seem unfitting for a Christian. After all aren’t we supposed to love our enemies and pray for them (Matt 5:44)? This is true, but our current culture has redefined love. Today’s love is focused on the immediate instead of the long-term. It often focuses on the wrong person as well. In the case of Alexander, Paul kicked him out of the church for two reasons that today’s world would not call loving. The first is clearly stated in 1 Timothy 1:20. It was to teach him a lesson. If we are to look at other Scripture on church discipline we understand that ultimate purpose is to restore the person to fellowship (Matt 18:15, 2 Cor 2:5-11). Sometimes, the one removed from the church isn’t really a believer and the goal then is, that left alone to his own devices, he will remember his life among Christians and compare it to his immoral degenerating life (delivered to Satan), see the difference, and turn to Christ for forgiveness and salvation (1 Cor 5:4-5). True love will look at the eternal consequences of actions, not just the temporal.
Avoid such godless chatter, for it will lead people into more and more ungodliness, and their talk will eat its way like gangrene … (2 Tim 2:16-17 RSV)
Second, the church needs to remain pure. While we are certainly required to love our enemies, we must also consider our love for other Christians, especially those who are new in the faith. When one is teaching blasphemous things, he may very well lead others of into the same error causing untold damage spiritually as well as physically. Why did Jesus become angry with the Pharisees? It wasn’t because they insulted Him. His anger boiled over into what the modern world would label as intolerance, bullying, and name-calling. In Matthew 23, Jesus pronounced seven woes against the scribes and Pharisees in which He called them fools, hypocrites, blind guides, unrighteous, serpents, brood of vipers, and murderers. Nearly every reason for these condemnations stems from hiding the truth of God and the way of salvation from the ones they should have been leading in true righteousness. God gets angry at sin, but doubly so when someone leads other into sin. True love will warn people about those who will lead them astray.
Be on Guard
Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; therefore be shrewd as serpents, and innocent as doves. But beware of men. (Matt 10:16-17a NASB)
When we have opponents to the Gospel, we need to be aware and beware of them. We are in a spiritual battle and we should expect the worst to happen. That’s where we need to be shrewd as serpents. If we understand what the worst could be, we don’t pretend that it could never happen and if it happens, we will not be surprised, depressed, or defeated. We will have made contingency plans, but most of all we will trust the Lord because He is sovereign. Even though we are sheep, our Shepherd is mightier than all. We don’t need to be afraid even in the midst of the wolves.
On the other hand, we need to be innocent as doves. That means that while we are prepared for the worst, we are also praying and expecting the best. Our trust in God not only takes us through the worst but brings about the best as we pray according to His will. Innocence also means that when we encounter the evil schemes of men, we will not retaliate with earthly wisdom or deeds (2 Cor 10:3-5). Paul instructed the Corinthians to stop thinking like children, with regard to evil to be like children, but in thinking to be adults (1 Cor 14:20). Peter also addressed this when he said that those who accuse us will be ashamed of their slander when they see our good behavior (1 Peter 3:16). Adult, shrewd, serpent-thinking will recognize that as we do not repay evil with evil but overcome it with good, we will persevere (Rom 12:17, 21).
Vigorously Oppose
What do we do if someone does vigorously oppose the message of the Gospel? First, we must have the proper attitude about what is really going on behind the scenes. According to Paul, we are not struggling with people but with spiritual forces (Eph 6:12). There is a huge battle going on and the people that are opposing the Gospel are slaves forced to fight in something even without knowing it. They are victims and we should be praying for their salvation even more than we pray for them to stop any physical persecution.
Contend, O Lord, with those who contend with me; fight against those who fight against me! (Ps 35:1 ESV)
The second thing to remember is that this is really the Lord’s battle. While we may think it is personal, as did David, the Lord is able to fight the battle much better when we turn it over to Him. If it seems personal, then we need to remember what is at stake. If it is the Gospel, God’s glory, or His reputation that is at stake, then we need to make sure we don’t get in the way by taking it personally. What does God say about the eventual outcome of those who oppose the Gospel? Isn’t it the same as those that fought against Israel?
Though you search for your enemies, you will not find them. Those who wage war against you will be as nothing at all. For I am the Lord, your God, who takes hold of your right hand and says to you, Do not fear; I will help you. (Isa 41:12-13 NIV)
We need to remember that they will suffer eternal loss if they don’t get on the right path. But we don’t just stand idly by and expect God to do all the work without us. Jude wrote, “I felt the necessity to write to you appealing that you contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all handed down to the saints” (Jude 3 NASU). We don’t have any excuse to roll over and let them preach heresy unabated. As long as we have the Lord with us and maintain the right attitude, whether we win or lose a skirmish, we will be fighting the way He wants.

Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Need Friends? – 2 Tim 4:9-13

Do your best to come to me soon. For Demas, in love with this present world, has deserted me and gone to Thessalonica. Crescens has gone to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. Luke alone is with me. Get Mark and bring him with you, for he is very useful to me for ministry. Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus. (ESV)
Friends
A man of many companions may come to ruin, but there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother. (Prov 18:24 NIV)
This is a good description of what happened to Paul. He had many companions during his ministry but now he is in prison for the second time, he has come to ruin. Luke is the only one who has stuck with him in this last ordeal. Shame on Demas, but before we cast too many stones at the others, we have to admit that we really don’t know why some of them left. Tychicus left at Paul’s direction, we can’t blame him. God may have called other to some specific ministry that wasn’t in the capacity that agreed with Paul. In the past, Paul had disagreements regarding ministry direction (Acts 15:37-40, 1 Cor 16:12). Sometimes we just don’t understand our friend’s plans. One thing is for sure, if they are Christians, their plans should not revolve around us, but Jesus. Perhaps a point of Proverbs 18:24 is to make many friends so that when people go their own way or even a different call by God, there will still be at least one who will be there to help.
Love of the World
Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him. (1 John 2:15 NKJV)
What about Demas? What do you think drew him away from ministry to the world? I have met people who were once pastors and are now working in secular jobs. Is this wrong? Is this the same thing that happened to Demas? These questions can’t be answered based on the little information we have about Demas. What we can do is heed the warning that John provided and know that if we are putting the things of the world ahead of our love of Jesus, then we don’t have God’s love in us. The pastor turned insurance salesman may have good reasons to do so. If the goal is making more money so that he can have a better life, then there is spiritual trouble ahead. If he made the change because God was directing him to do something different, that is where he should be. Whether we are led to full-time ministry or secular work, we should do it in the name of the Lord (Col 3:17). If we want to please the Lord then all that we do should be with His glory in mind.
Changes
But many who are first will be last; and the last, first. (Matt 19:30 NASU)
Life is full of changes. Friends come and go. The big changes, which often force us to be last, often bring about the best. Paul was in prison and out of prison and back in prison. His companions left him, perhaps because they needed to continue the work of spreading the Gospel while he was locked up. From their viewpoint, it may have been a very difficult decision to leave Paul with only Luke to take care of him. However, change can often force us out of our comfort zones to do something that we wouldn’t have otherwise done. Illnesses, death in a family, divorce, children leaving home, loss of work, and many other changes may be a wakeup call. We may discover through these things that we have been putting ourselves first instead of last.
Change doesn’t always happen in the way we want it. The disciples wanted change but didn’t’ want Jesus to be crucified; they didn’t understand the change that must be made (Matt 16:21-23). Even after Jesus’ resurrection, they still thought Jesus was going to bring change the way they wanted by restoring the kingdom to Israel (Acts 1:6). Just like the disciples, we often think that political changes are what our country needs.
And I will give you a new heart, and I will put a new spirit in you. I will take out your stony, stubborn heart and give you a tender, responsive heart. (Ezek 36:26 NLT)
Jesus’ plan for change is something that is much more important than any political agenda. Judah had been carried off to Babylon and Ezekiel was a prophet to the exiles. The exiles wanted to go back to Judah and God told them that He would bring them back; however, it wasn’t in their timing. Before their ultimate return, which is still in our future, He would change their hearts. They were idol worshipers and far from being true God worshipers. The same is true for any nation. Until the people of the nation have new hearts by being born again, there will be no lasting change.
It is also applicable to individuals. Unless we get a new heart through faith in Jesus, all our changes are only temporary and not eternal. Once we have a new heart, that will never change as Jesus will be the one that ensures we will always be His (John 10:27-28). He is our friend forever.
Restoration
And Barnabas wanted to take with them John called Mark. But Paul thought best not to take with them one who had withdrawn from them in Pamphyl'ia, and had not gone with them to the work. (Acts 15:37-38 RSV)
You probably know the story of Mark. On Paul’s first missionary journey, he and Barnabas took Mark along. They had an amazing time of ministry on Cyprus. They proclaimed the Word of God in the synagogues so that the proconsul, of the province, Sergius Paulus, asked to hear Paul. What an opportunity, except that the proconsul’s right hand man was a magician who opposed the Christian missionaries. After a brief spiritual battle, the magician ends up blinded and Sergius Paulus becomes a believer. How would you have liked to be a part of that awesome mission trip?
You would think that after that spiritual high, Mark would be all the more eager to continue with Paul and Barnabas. We don’t know why, but Mark didn’t continue on with them. Was the battle too much? Did Mark have obligations at home? Was it too stressful? No one really knows, but once they traveled on to Pamphylia, Mark left and returned to Jerusalem. When they wanted to make a second missionary journey, Paul didn’t want to have anything to do with Mark. The breakup between Barnabas and Paul over Mark was serious (Acts 15:39). We see a glimpse of Paul’s stormy side there and his condemnation of Demas in 2 Timothy 4:10.
Aristarchus my fellow prisoner greets you, and Mark the cousin of Barnabas (concerning whom you have received instructions— if he comes to you, welcome him. (Col 4:10 ESV)
Barnabas is only heard from again in the Bible in this reference that occurred about nine or ten years later and a brief mention in 1 Corinthians 9:6. Other mentions in Galatians were written before the split. The reference in Colossians is important because it shows that Paul encouraged them to welcome Barnabas. One of the problems with acrimonious splits is that people hear about them and then assume the worse. It is even possible that the Collossians had heard about the split from Paul on his second missionary trip after the split. This would make it even more important for Paul to emphasize their need to welcome Barnabas. Restoration is often hard because of the number of people that hear about the problem but never hear about the reconciliation.
Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, "Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me? Up to seven times?" Jesus answered, "I tell you, not seven times, but seventy-seven times.” (Matt 18:21-22 NIV)
Restoration or reconciliation doesn’t always happen after a problem occurs and there is an apology. We must be clear that restoration and reconciliation is not the same as forgiveness though forgiveness must come first. Complete restoration can only occur when trust is reestablished after genuine repentance has been demonstrated. The person who continues to abuse a relationship and ask for forgiveness is not one you can trust. If you forgive the person, then you don’t bring the offence up with him, others, or yourself. However, that does not mean you will trust the person. On the other hand, if the abuse stops and there is a change in keeping with repentance, reconciliation can occur. Regarding Mark, it is clear from Col 4:10 and Paul’s instructions to Timothy that any conflicts between Mark and Paul had been resolved because there is trust and a demonstration of repentance in usefulness in the ministry.
Keep your life free from love of money, and be content with what you have, for he has said, "I will never leave you nor forsake you." (Heb 13:5 ESV)
We may alienate ourselves from Jesus by our love of the world or other sins. But we need to know that this is a one-sided problem. He has not left us or forsaken us. Rather, knowing that He is with us through all our problems and even our sinful rebellion should be an encouragement to live a life pleasing to Him rather than being drawn away to the world. If we do withdraw for a time, we know that we can always come back to Him. However, we will need to confess our sin before we will find that complete restoration (1 John 1:7-10). Jesus is the one who always sticks closer than a brother.

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Changes

But many who are first will be last; and the last, first. (Matt 19:30 NASU)
Life is full of changes. The big ones, which often force us to be last, often bring about the best. Paul was in prison and out of prison and back in prison (2 Tim 4:9-13). His companions left him, perhaps because they needed to continue the work of spreading the Gospel while he was locked up. From their viewpoint, it may have been a very difficult decision to leave Paul with only Luke to take care of him. However, change can often force us out of our comfort zones to do something that we wouldn’t have otherwise done. Illnesses, death in a family, divorce, children leaving home, loss of work, and many other changes may be a wakeup call. We may discover through these things that we have been putting ourselves first instead of last.
Change doesn’t always happen in the way we want it. The disciples wanted change but didn’t’ want Jesus to be crucified; they didn’t understand the change that must be made (Matt 16:21-23). Even after Jesus’ resurrection, they still thought Jesus was going to bring change the way they wanted by restoring the kingdom to Israel (Acts 1:6). Just like the disciples, we often think that political changes are what our country needs.
And I will give you a new heart, and I will put a new spirit in you. I will take out your stony, stubborn heart and give you a tender, responsive heart. (Ezek 36:26 NLT)
Jesus’ plan for change is something that is much more important than any political agenda. Judah had been carried off to Babylon and Ezekiel was a prophet to the exiles. The exiles wanted to go back to Judah and God told them that He would bring them back; however, it wasn’t in their timing. Before their ultimate return, which is still in our future, He would change their hearts. They were idol worshipers and far from being true God worshipers. The same is true for any nation. Until the people of the nation have new hearts by being born again, there will be no lasting change.
It is also applicable to individuals. Unless we get a new heart through faith in Jesus, all our changes are only temporary and not eternal.

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Longing for Jesus’ Return – 2 Tim 4:8

Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day — and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for his appearing. (NIV)
In Store
What do we have in store for the future? Many people panic about their future because they fear what the government is going to do, or not do. Others fear for their jobs as company merges with company. The executives of these companies rejoice for the abundance they will receive after the merger and employees face layoffs. For others, retirement is a dream of the past as they see their wealth consumed by medical bills or children who have moved back home. All of these are short sighted for Christians as they are temporal and not eternal (2 Cor 4:16-18).
How great is Your goodness, Which You have stored up for those who fear You, Which You have wrought for those who take refuge in You … (Ps 31:19 NASU)
God’s goodness is stored up for each of us who takes refuge in Him or trusts Him. This verse explains a lot about how good God is. Many people have a problem with the Bible and especially the Old Testament because of the many references to fearing God. So how do you explain one phrase that tells of His goodness for someone who fears Him and the next phrase that says fear results in trusting Him? Would you trust someone and take refuge in him if you were afraid of him? No, therefore this fear is not the same as a phobia that cause panic or paralysis. Rather, it is an acknowledgment that the Creator of the universe, the one with all power to do whatever He wants must be held in awe and reverence. Isaiah stated when he had a vision of God on His throne, “Woe is me! for I am undone.” (Isa 6:5 KJV) Isaiah knew that there was no way he could stand in the presences of a holy God. His sins, even if there were only one, should be punished. He was undone, found out, guilty, deserving death.
Because of our sins against God, He would be perfectly just to wipe us out of existence or punish us forever. Yet the Psalm states how great is His goodness! Instead of punishment, we have goodness stored up for us. But we can’t take it out of context. We must be people who fear Him and take refuge in Him. The only way to take refuge in God is through Jesus (John 14:6). If we don’t have Jesus, then we don’t have God’s goodness waiting for us.
For you had compassion on me in my chains, and joyfully accepted the plundering of your goods, knowing that you have a better and an enduring possession for yourselves in heaven. (Heb 10:34 NKJV)
Just how willing are we to accept the loss of worldly things with joy because we know we have something much better waiting for us in heaven? The Hebrew Christians were facing ostracism from their kin if they didn’t give up their faith in Jesus. They were facing imprisonment and loss of all their possessions from the Romans if they didn’t give up their faith in Jesus. What on earth would make anyone willingly and joyfully endure that? That is the whole point. There is nothing on earth that is worth losing our eternal rewards in heaven.
Don't store up treasures here on earth, where moths eat them and rust destroys them, and where thieves break in and steal. Store your treasures in heaven, where moths and rust cannot destroy, and thieves do not break in and steal. Wherever your treasure is, there the desires of your heart will also be. (Matt 6:19-21 NLT)
What is first in our hearts determines our treasures as Jesus’ words make obvious. While we may gain heaven because of our faith in Jesus, what gets stored up for us in heaven has a lot to do with our attitude and actions. What we do during our lives on earth has eternal consequences. Paul was looking forward to a crown of righteousness. We may have a mansion or a really great room in a mansion (John 14:2). We may have dominion over many cities (Luke 19:17). Jesus put these rewards in human terms so we can understand that something great will be waiting for us, but what we will have is far beyond anything we can now imagine.
No eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor the heart of man conceived, what God has prepared for those who love him. (1 Cor 2:9 RSV)
Think about that for a minute. Consider what some of the Sci-Fi writers have imagined. Consider the vastness of the universe. Consider the incomprehensible subatomic structure of matter where new particles are discovered or theorized almost every day. Consider the way a delicate flower blooms from a hard green stem. Consider the mysteries of chains that fell from Peter’s hands and the iron gate that opened by itself when an angel led him out of prison (Acts 12:6-11). Consider that our finite minds are limited and God’s is not. Our power is extremely puny but God’s has no limits. Consider what is awaiting us in heaven. Consider the shortness of our lives and the expanse of eternity. Consider what would be more important to grasp in this life than that which will last into eternity. Let’s join with Paul when he says to set our hearts and minds on things above and not on earthly things (Col 3:1-2).
Righteous Judge
Put the words righteous and judge together and what is your immediate thought? If it is hellfire and brimstone for evil people then you are probably in the majority. If it is relief for the afflicted (2 Thess 1:7) then you are in the minority. If it is reward and blessing for what you have done in this life (Ruth 2:12) then you are still in the minority, especially if you were able to see this in the Old Testament.
He is the Rock, his works are perfect, and all his ways are just. A faithful God who does no wrong, upright and just is he. (Deut 32:4 NIV) By myself I can do nothing; I judge only as I hear, and my judgment is just, for I seek not to please myself but him who sent me. (John 5:30 NIV)
God is the kind of judge that we want all of our judges to be. Everything God does is perfect. That means when He judges, it is a perfect judgment. He is omniscient so He knows all the facts of a case. You can call all the witnesses you want, but not one of them will know all the facts. While a human judge may have a good clue about a person’s motivation, it is only God who knows a person’s heart (1 Chron 28:9). God does no wrong, so any sentence handed down will also be correct and just. When it is passed, no one will be able to tell God that He has been too harsh or too lenient.
Jesus indentifies Himself with the Father in judgment. He hears all, as He is omniscient as well. He can’t be bribed or turned aside from a righteous judgment because the only way to please the Father is to judge exactly the way He does. That’s why the Father can give all judgment into the hands of Jesus (John 5:22). When people say they believe in God but not Jesus, they don’t understand that they will face Jesus at their final judgment.
How should knowing that God is a righteous judge affect us? We should be able to trust Him completely. Since He is absolutely fair, we can trust that any sentence or reward we receive will take into account everything. It won’t depend on what others think about us, but it will only be what God knows about us. What He knows is that at some point in our lives we have all sinned (Rom 3:23) and that it only takes one sin to be accountable, or guilty of every kind of sin (James 2:10). That should also cause us to be dreadfully fearful (Heb 10:31) because we instinctually know that the sentence is death (Rom 6:23).
That didn’t work out the way you expected did it? We went from trust to that wrong kind of fear very fast. The key to keep from falling into this dreadful fear but to have a loving trust of God is to know Jesus.
Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. (Matt 11:28-30 ESV)
Why are we laboring and burdened? Isn’t it because we are sinful and we are trying to earn a right standing before God? We are working and working but have no guarantee that we have done enough to make up for our sins. Ask most people on the street why they think they will go to heaven and they’ll say that they’ve been a pretty good person. Do they know for sure they will go to heaven when they die? They usually say they hope so; they have no assurance.
Jesus gives us rest from all that kind of labor and uncertainty. He gives us soul rest. That rest requires something from us but it isn’t a burden. Notice Jesus said that we need to take His yoke on ourselves. We won’t have rest as long as we are trying to do all the work to make up for our shortcomings. Jesus’ yoke is the cross where He was crucified and died to pay the penalty for our sins. His gentleness and lowliness of heart was demonstrated on the cross because He is God but gave up all His rights and privileges to become a person who would live a sinless life and then give that life up in place of our sinful life. When we take His yoke on us it means that we trust His death on the cross to pay for our sins.
But a yoke is also a device where two pull together. Make no mistake about it; this is not a yoke for two equals. This is a yoke designed for one who is much stronger and one who has no strength in himself. When the two are pulling in the same direction, the stronger one does all the work. When the weaker one pulls in his own selfish direction, it yields frustration, stumbling, awkwardness, and embarrassment. In other words, this is a yoke of submission to Jesus’ control of our lives. Taking His yoke on us means that we submit to His loving control of our lives.
We have rest for our souls when we turn to Jesus as our Lord and Savior. We have rest because He has done all the work. Do you have a soul that is at rest? Do you have peace with God? If not, then admit to God that you are a sinner and that you believe He died for your sins. Ask for His forgiveness. Ask Jesus to take control of your life and turn from your sins.
Judgment Day
“They will be Mine," says the Lord of hosts, "on the day that I prepare My own possession, and I will spare them as a man spares his own son who serves him." So you will again distinguish between the righteous and the wicked, between one who serves God and one who does not serve Him. (Mal 3:17-18 NASU)
Are you looking forward to Judgment Day? God is clear throughout the Bible that there will be a day of judgment. He has declared it over and over. Christians are often blasted for preaching hellfire and damnation. Who is so opposed to the doctrine of a Judgment Day? Is it those that God has spared? Is it people who have served Him as His son did? Of course not, Judgment Day will be great time for God’s possession. They have no fear of what waits for them after death. Most are looking forward to it.
No, the ones who complain about hellfire and damnation are those who reject God. It is those who have no desire to serve Him. God says that there will be a distinction between them and the ones that serve as a son. It is those who claim they want God or know God but reject the Son, Jesus Christ, who served Him perfectly. The truth is, none of us can serve God in perfect obedience the way Jesus did. If we are to be spared, then it is based not on how well we serve God but on our association with Jesus. When we arrive at the Judgment Day, the Son who served the Father will say, “It’s OK, he’s with me.” We will be spared because we are with the son. “He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life” (1 John 5:12-13 NKJV).
Long for His Appearing
Behold, the day of the Lord is coming, Cruel, with fury and burning anger, to make the land a desolation; and He will exterminate its sinners from it. (Isa 13:9 NASB)
Why are we longing for His appearing? The trailer of the latest Left Behind movie depicts the prelude to Jesus’ appearing as nothing but horror and devastation. Chloe screams that her God would never do something like that. Chloe represents the belief of most people. They can’t understand why anyone would look forward or long for something that sounds so horrible. God even announced thousands of years ago that this would be an unprecedented time of cruelty.
How do you answer someone who asks you why you would believe in a God who would do something like this? Do you answer that it is similar to a surgeon who must cause incredible pain to remove a cancer or an oncologist who prescribes a course of chemotherapy with side effects that sometimes seem worse than the disease? Their goal is a healthy body free from the consequences of the dreaded disease. Unless we have a right understanding of sin and its consequences, we will never fully look forward to Jesus’ appearing. Sin is just like cancer. It grows until it completely consumes its host. Without treatment, cancer always results in physical death; there is never a beneficial mutation from cancer. Without restraint, sin keeps getting worse and worse, it always needs to ratchet up the senses, the desires, to feed the heart that will not submit to God (Rom 1:18-32, Eph 4:19). Sin leads to a final, painful, spiritual death (James 1:15).
At this point, God is restraining the full force of sin in the world (2 Thess 2:3-11) so what we saw in WW II, Rwanda, and other places in the world doesn’t occur everywhere, every day. If these atrocities don’t make you shudder and long for them to be wiped from existence, then you have a very poor concept of sin and its results. We don’t long for the short time of misery that will come upon the world when Jesus comes back, we long for the eternal stifling of sin that has continued to cause billions of people to suffer since sin entered into the world in the Garden of Eden.
We ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. (Rom 8:23 RSV)
Even without the devastating effects of sin that people perpetrate on others, there are still the dreaded consequences of Adam and Eve’s sin. Death, decay, and everything wearing out are some of the results (Rom 8:20). We all die. Things rot. Even the sun will wear out someday. Our death may be a result of our own sinful lifestyle or someone else’s sin. For most people, it is disease or simply getting old. Even though we are saved from the eternal consequences of sin through Jesus Christ, we will die unless Jesus comes back first. So we long for the day that our dead bodies or the ones that are still alive will be tuned into immortal bodies. We will be in heaven with Jesus and death will never happen again. Death’s final defeat will be accomplished (1 Cor 15:50-57). We do not need to fear death, but until that day comes, we will long for Jesus’ appearing because it will signal the end of death forever.
So, where are you at in your spiritual journey? Are you longing for Jesus’ return or are you apprehensive? Do you trust that Jesus will work all things out now and when He returns or do you question His goodness and justice regarding such an event? What is clear is that He will return. There are so many references to it that they are hard to count. Jesus mentioned it in parables such as the one where the master entrusted servants with talents until his return (Matt 25:14-30). He spoke plainly about it in Matt 24:36-44. Paul taught often about it and reiterated his teaching in writing (1 Thess 5:1-2). Peter wrote often about the day of the Lord in Second Peter. So we should get used to the idea and learn to love His appearing.
After all, if we are looking forward to Jesus’ return, we will receive a crown of righteousness. What is that crown of righteousness?
He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him. (2 Cor 5:21 NASB)
When we believed and were transformed by the power of the Holy Spirit, we received God’s own righteousness through Jesus. In one sense, we already have that crown if we are believers. However, Paul may have been giving us a subtle warning that if we are not looking forward to Jesus’ return, maybe we aren’t the believers we think we are and should test ourselves (2 Cor 13:5-6). I pray that you do not fail the test.

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

How Much Is Enough - Got Rest?

Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. (Matt 11:28-30 ESV)
Why are we laboring and burdened? Isn’t it because we are sinful and we are trying to earn a right standing before God? We are working and working but have no guarantee that we have done enough to make up for our sins. Ask most people on the street why they think they will go to heaven and they’ll say that they’ve been a pretty good person. Do they know for sure they will go to heaven when they die? They usually say they hope so; they have no assurance.
Jesus gives us rest from all that kind of labor and uncertainty. He gives us soul rest. That rest requires something from us but it isn’t a burden. Notice Jesus said that we need to take His yoke on ourselves. We won’t have rest as long as we are trying to do all the work to make up for our shortcomings. Jesus’ yoke is the cross where He was crucified and died to pay the penalty for our sins. His gentleness and lowliness of heart was demonstrated on the cross because He is God but gave up all His rights and privileges to become a person who would live a sinless life and then give that life up in place of our sinful life. When we take His yoke on us it means that we trust His death on the cross to pay for our sins.
But a yoke is also a device where two pull together. Make no mistake about it; this is not a yoke for two equals. This is a yoke designed for one who is much stronger and one who has no strength in himself. When the two are pulling in the same direction, the stronger one does all the work. When the weaker one pulls in his own selfish direction, it yields frustration, stumbling, awkwardness, and embarrassment. In other words, this is a yoke of submission to Jesus’ control of our lives. Taking His yoke on us means that we submit to His loving control of our lives.
We have rest for our souls when we turn to Jesus as our Lord and Savior. We have rest because He has done all the work. Do you have a soul that is at rest? Do you have peace with God? If not, then admit to God that you are a sinner and that you believe He died for your sins. Ask for His forgiveness. Ask Jesus to take control of your life and turn from your sins.

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Theodicies and the Problem of Evil: Theodicy as Affected by the Theory of Evolution

LIBERTY UNIVERSITY BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
Theodicies and the Problem of Evil: Theodicy as Affected by the Theory of Evolution 
Submitted to Dr. John F. Jones, in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the completion of the course 
THEO 525 D05
Systematic Theology I 
by 
Ray Ruppert
August 15, 2014
Thesis Statement
This paper will seek to show that the theory of evolution has affected theodicy because those who embrace the theory must redefine God and therefore undermine his character rather than defend his character.
Table of Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1
Definition of Theodicy..................................................................................................................... 2
Evolutionary Theodicy.................................................................................................................... 2
The Definition of Evil............................................................................................................ 3
The Responsibility for Evil.................................................................................................... 4
God’s Goodness........................................................................................................ 7
God’s Power.............................................................................................................. 8
Historical Christian Theodicies....................................................................................................... 9
Augustine’s Theodicy............................................................................................................ 9
Calvin’s Theodicy.................................................................................................................. 10
Barth’s Theodicy................................................................................................................... 11
Conclusion........................................................................................................................................ 11
Bibliography..................................................................................................................................... 15

Introduction

The age of enlightenment requires empirical evidence to substantiate beliefs. This spawned scientific study that resulted in the theory of evolution. This one theory has unsettled the theology of many Christians because of supposed empirical evidence that substantiates a theory of creation that is in opposition to the biblical account of creation. This has affected theological debate, including the area of theodicy. Rather than attempting to prove God’s goodness and omnipotence in the face of evil as do historical Christian theodicies, theodicies that uphold the theory of evolution usually seek to prove that evils in the world can be explained because God is somewhat different from the conservative Christian’s concept of God. Still others deny the existence of God. This paper will concentrate on the theodicies of evolutionists who do not deny the existence of God and how evolution affects their view of God in their theodicies. These theodicies meet the requirements of a theodicy as defined by J. S. Feinburg.[1] Evolutionists who deny the existence of God also propose theodicies. However, they do not fit completely within the definition of a theodicy because they deny the existence of God.
This paper will examine the logic of these theodicies in order to show how they meet the requirements of a theodicy and include evolutionary ideas. It will also review historical Christian theodicies in order to show that evolutionary theodicies have changed their focus. This will seek to show that the theory of evolution has affected theodicy because those who embrace the theory must redefine God and therefore undermine his character rather than defend his character.

Definition of Theodicy

This paper will use Feinburg’s definition of theodicy, “A term used to refer to attempts to justify the ways of God to man. A successful theodicy resolves the problem of evil for a theological system and demonstrates that God is all-powerful, all-loving, and just despite evil’s existence.”[2] Feinburg provides six points for a theodicy as summarized here: (1) The theodicy must demonstrate that the propositions of the definition are logically consistent. (2) It cannot resolve natural evils with answers to moral evils and vice versa. (3) The solution must be completely within the concepts of its theological system, which means theodicy is not restricted to Christianity. (4) The theodicy cannot expect God’s power to do something illogical such as turn a square into a circle while remaining a square. (5) It cannot demand moral responsibility of one who cannot do something nor does something under duress. (6) A theodicy seeks to demonstrate that there is a value that occurs that is greater than the evil analyzed.[3]

Evolutionary Theodicies

In applying this definition to theodicies, it would seem that all theodicies must render the same conclusion, that God is good, he is omnipotent, and that there is value in the rampant evil in the world. For one who is accustomed to this outcome of a theodicy, it is hard to imagine that an adherent to evolution would have any desire to defend God’s character. One would assume that an evolutionist would start with a premise that there is no God, or would want to discredit any notion of a good and all-powerful God in order to ridicule a theistic belief. While this may be true, there are many Christian theologians, including conservatives, who believe in an evolutionary means of creation.[4] While it may be obvious that evolution has affected an atheistic evolutionist’s theodicy, it may not be as obvious that Christians who support evolution have theodicies that are different from traditional theodicies. Nor is it always evident what the logical consequences are of holding an evolutionary view.

The Definition of Evil

Each theodicy starts with a definition of evil. Evolutionary theodicies most often depict evil in the suffering and death of sentient beings. Some present the suffering in graphic details, as does George John Romanes:
Some hundreds of millions of years ago some millions of millions of animals must be supposed to have been sentient. Since that time till the present, there must have been millions and millions of generations of millions of millions of individuals. And throughout all this period of incalculable duration, this inconceivable host of sentient organisms have been in a state of unceasing battle, dread, ravin, pain. Looking to the outcome, we find that more than half of the species which have survived the ceaseless struggle are parasitic in their habits, lower and insentient forms of life feasting on higher and sentient forms; we find teeth and talons whetted for slaughter, hooks and suckers moulded for torment—everywhere a reign of terror, hunger, and sickness, with oozing blood and quivering limbs, with gasping breath and eyes of innocence that dimly close in deaths of brutal torture![5]
It is not possible to say that all proponents of evolutionary theodicies use as much detail as Romanes did. However, authors often elaborate on different aspects of suffering in the animal kingdom. Christopher Southgate states, “It is important to recognize the reality of creaturely suffering. This is not to suppose that nonhuman suffering is exactly like human suffering.”[6] He follows this with observations of slow deaths that predators often inflict on their prey as well as a description of a film where a lion starves to death.[7]
Southgate only sees human suffering as an extension of animal suffering.[8] Evil in evolutionary theodicies seldom address moral evils of humanity. Sin is not a consideration; they also argue that man’s free will works against evolution because God would have to intervene countless times over the eons to counteract the free will actions of human beings to ensure the world as it is.[9] Evolutionary theodicies are consistent in their definitions of evil; they avoid assigning evil to any moral problems by completely avoiding the suffering of humans other than in the same context as being predators and causing suffering without any moral distinction.

The Responsibility for Evil

Having established that there is evil in world and that it is prevalent, evolutionary theodicies turn to the question of who or what is responsible for the evil. The debate will naturally seek to prove one of two conclusions: (1) There is a God who created the world and he did so in such a way to bring about the world as it is today, including the evils. (2) The alternative is that there is no God and the whole matter of assigning responsibility is inconsequential. With regard to the latter, arguments that take this position are not theodicies as there is no God to defend.
The first conclusion has several variations. The first is to ignore the suffering of the animal world. These arguments admit to the sufferings but dismiss them as the way things are. They have no moral basis of evil[10] and presumably, this would relieve God from the responsibility for evil. The difficulty with this argument is the Christian response that God made the earth, pronounced it good, and sustains it; therefore, God must care about suffering of animals.[11] In addition, Robin Attfield reveals that there are theorists who maintain that human valuers are the only ones who can assess value or disvalue (evil).[12] If these valuers were not in existence then evil could not exist. Ignoring evil is not logical since the theodicies that try to do this have already established that animal suffering is evil.
Another answer to evil in the nonhuman population is to attribute to matter the ability to have free will. John C. Polkinghorne states, “God no more expressly wills the growth of a cancer than he expressly wills the act of a murderer, but he allows both to happen. He is not the puppetmaster of either men or matter.”[13] If an evolutionary theist uses this argument, he could use the same arguments that pertain to human free will to apply to matter. Southgate disagrees with this concept not based on this implausibility, but because it relates more to human suffering than nonhuman suffering.[14] Evolutionary theodicies place a high importance on the evil of non-human suffering. They do not equate it with human suffering and do not assign responsibility to humans either. There is not empirical evidence (which evolutionary theists hold in high value) to support the free will of matter.
A third variation clearly places the responsibility for evil on God, but tries to alleviate the problem by its definition of God. Southgate explains, “God self-empties of mind and power in giving the creation its existence and then allows the interplay of chance and natural law to take its course.”[15] This description of God fits with the definition of deism, “Belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe.”[16] Deism is not new; it was a belief even before the introduction of evolution. It is not the Christian view of God, but fits within its own theological system. However, it does not grant relief to the question of why God would create a universe that would result in the suffering of nonhumans, one that has gone on for ages and will continue until the earth becomes uninhabitable.
There is also the theistic view as described by Millard Erickson. “Some Christian theologians, even a few quite conservative ones, have adopted a view termed ‘theistic evolution.’ According to this view, God created in a direct fashion at the beginning of the process, and ever since has worked from within through evolution.”[17] One aspect of this view is that creation occurred as described in Genesis but then God intervenes to preserve each species, requiring constant intervention through the ages. Erickson prefers a modification of this concept that he labels “progressive creationism.”[18] This theory requires long periods of time where God creates a member of a kind and then develops into subgroups through the natural process of evolution.[19] This view has its detractors who object to the concept that there needs to be any intervention in the process of evolution and in some cases, it would actually hinder evolution.[20]
Mankind is often blamed for the presence of evil in the world. However, evolutionary theodicy soundly eliminates the possibility that this could be the case. Whether one supports deism, theistic evolution, or progressive evolution, the fact remains that there was untold animal suffering before the creation of Adam and Eve.[21] Nicolaas Vorster states, “Nature always contained a dark side. Suffering, predation, death, and pain were there before the arrival of the human.”[22] One cannot use the fall in Genesis 3 to account for the current state of the world and believe that evolution has been continuing for countless years with predators and parasites causing pain and suffering until humans came on the scene. The evolutionary solution is to assign responsibility to the creator. However, one could state that the fall applies both forward and backward in time in the same way Christ’s atonement applies.[23] One might even say God subjected creation to futility and decay (Rom 8:20-21) in anticipation of the fall.
Evolutionary theodicies that ignore evil or do not hold God responsible for evil are not within Feinburg’s definition of a theodicy, as they are illogical. The evolutionary theodicies that acknowledge a creator and that nonhuman suffering is evil claim that by the act of creation, the creator is ultimately responsible for evil. If there had not been a creation, there would be no evil. Whether these theodicies uphold the creator’s goodness and omnipotence is the next consideration.

God’s Goodness

To this point, evolutionary theodicies that conform to Feinburg’s definition assign the responsibility of evil to the creator. Since a theodicy must defend God’s goodness, it is now evident that these theodicies must show that in spite of or because of the suffering of nonhumans, this suffering achieves a higher good that demonstrates God’s goodness. Evolutionary theodicies that defend God’s goodness point to the outcome of evolution, the world as it is. The value of the world today, even with human beings, is a much greater alternative than other possible worlds. Attfield states it clearly:
I conclude that the evolutionary system of nature has vast overall value, and that although there are widespread evils within it, the only alternatives are a lifeless world, a world without sentient life, and a world of constant supernatural intervention, all of them probably worlds without such a positive balance of value as the actual world. Indeed the system of nature is such as not to preclude its being created by a good creator.[24]
This concept of a good God does not set well with all. Vorster asks several redundant questions to criticize John Hick’s view that, in Vorster’s words, “All the unjust and apparently wasted suffering in the world may be regarded as a divinely created sphere of soul-making.”[25] Vorster asks, “Would a good God allow so much suffering only for the purpose of creating mature human beings?”[26] Jayna Ditty and Philip Rolnik appear to share this opinion as they wonder how we can believe a God of love would create a world with the evils of evolution. Yet they also appear to alter the notion of a good God by stating, “One thing is clear: an overly sentimental view of God is called into question by evolution.”[27] Vorster proposes to exonerate God by applying the fall forward and backward in time.[28] Though not the only view, the prevalent view of evolutionary theodicies is that God is responsible for creating evil but for good purposes.

God’s Power

A paradox happens in evolutionary theodicies. While granting God the power to create ex nihilo, they tend to demand that this is the end of God’s involvement with creation. Those who do not support theistic evolution from a Christian standpoint have a problem with the concept that God continues to intervene in creation. Joseph Corabi argues this in his discussion of intelligent design. The primary complaint is that this intervention would cause a world with massive irregularities; these would require an explanation or cover up.[29] Intelligent design would require God’s intervention billions of time since creation to create complex biochemical organisms.[30] God is either prohibited from miracles or he is labeled ineffective in his creation. He could not create the world as he wanted, without any predatory creatures, so he was forced (because he is not able) to create it with evil and then bring good out of it.[31]  
Explanations then proceed to say that God does not care, is impotent in these matters, or has self-limited his powers. The first case is deism, which does not defend God’s character from a Christian standpoint of a personal God who is vitally interested in his creation. The second case obviously does not defend God’s omnipotence, for if God is able but not willing, then God is malevolent.[32] Arguments that conclude God is not able to prevent evil do not conform to the definition of a true theodicy; they do not uphold God’s power. The self-limiting answer is the only logical answer but is acceptable only if it upholds God’s goodness at the same time.

Historical Christian Theodicies

This section will briefly describe historical Christian theodicies. It focuses on Christian theodicies since theodicies have existed before Christianity started addressing these issues and other religions use theodicies. Christian theodicies developed to confront the influence of the non-Christian theodicies such as Manichaeanism and some even adapted elements of Neo-Platonism.[33] These brief explanations show how theodicies have changed since the introduction of the theory of evolution.

Augustine’s Theodicy

Vorster summarizes the theodicy of Augustine:
His doctrine on God resolutely affirms two basic premises: First, that God is an omnipotent being who is able to do whatever He wants insofar as such actions are consistent with His being, and secondly, that God is a good being and therefore not the direct cause of evil whatsoever. His doctrine on creation, accordingly, maintains that God created ex nihilo and therefore is sovereign over all things, and He created all things good because He is a good being.[34]
Augustine argued that evil came about because of the fall. At the time of creations, humans were good and possessed a free will. Because Adam and Eve had free will, they had the capacity to sin and their sin extended to the rest of mankind.[35] Evil is the fault of all human sin as Augustine’s belief is that all were in the seminal body of Adam.[36] An important aspect of Augustinian theodicy is that he apparently argued from a literal interpretation of the Bible. Hick concludes that Augustine believed “in the sight of God all things, including even sin and its punishment, combine to form a wonderful harmony which is not only good but very good.”[37]

Calvin’s Theodicy

While John Calvin did not develop a specific theodicy, his theology shows clear applications to a theodicy. In this, he is clear that God is absolutely sovereign. As Vorster summarizes, “He does not simply permit earthly occurrences, but commands the entire course of nature and history. God’s providence is not merely general in nature, but He is deeply involved in the particulars of history.”[38] This concept steadfastly upholds God’s omnipotence.
Calvin maintains God’s goodness, but supporting it depends on agreeing that God did not create man sinful; he did not create evil in nature. “Yet, God did not prevent the Fall, but allowed and permitted it to serve his good purposes.”[39] Calvin reconciles his view of God’s sovereignty and his non-prevention of evil by accepting that his purposes of good are beyond human reasoning. Trying to understand this betrays human conceit in questioning God.[40]

Barth’s Theodicy

While some question Barth’s theology, he did not include evolutionary principles in his theodicy. Vorster also provides a brief summation of Barth’s theodicy:
According to Barth evil, sin, wickedness, the devil, death and non-being exists in its own way by the will of God. Nothing exists outside of the will of God. He distinguishes between God’s voluntas efficiens and voluntas permittens to explain the way in which evil exists by the sovereign will of God. God’s voluntas efficiens is that what God positively affirms and creates, while His voluntas permittens consists in His refraining, non-prevention and nonexclusion.[41]
This argument maintains God’s power, which in some ways is similar to Augustine and Calvin. Each maintains that God has the power to prevent evil but they believe God permits evil to exist and it starts with man’s free will.
Barth maintains God’s goodness by centering his theology on Christ. Creation is good because it exists for Christ. Christ’s redemptive work ensures that creation is perfect even though there are evils.[42] However, evil takes on a form of itself called das Nichtige. This void or nothingness is something other than God or God’s creation. It is responsible for evil.[43] This nothingness is what caused the fall by affecting man’s free will. While not consistent with much of Christian theology, it exonerates God.

Conclusion

There are several biblical principles that evolution has affected as revealed in evolutionary theodicies. The first is the concept of creation. Evolutionary theodicies that affirm an omnipotent and good God confirm creation ex nihilo. However, they also claim that God continues in his creative efforts through evolution. Whether they claim God creates new species or species are only diversified, these changes occur through evolution or natural selection. These are God’s continued creation. This concept of God’s continued creation is not found in historical Christian theodicies.
One effect of evolutionary theodicies is to change the definition of evil. Augustine, Calvin, and Barth were all concerned with evil as described in terms of sin and its consequences. If they considered animal suffering, it was a result of the fall. While some of the evolutionary theodicies acknowledge evil in connection with humans, their primary concern it not with human suffering, but with animal suffering.
Evolutionary theodicies uphold God’s goodness by the contention that God had to make the world the way it is in order to bring about life on this planet as it is today. This is the greater good that justifies God allowing evolution to continue his creation with apparent evil.
While these theodicies may have satisfactory arguments as defined by Feinburg, the effects subtly undermine God’s character rather than affirm it. First, by denying that God could create the earth without evil, they bring into question God’s power. The claim that he was unable to create the earth without predatory or parasitic creatures emphasizes his powerlessness; they contend that this is the only way he could have created.
Secondly, they question God’s goodness. The Bible claims in Genesis 1, that all of creation was good even after the creation of man and woman. If evolution is true, then there had to be animal suffering from the creation of the first animals, which came before the creation of humans. Since they define evil as animal sufferings, then this implies that God does not know what good means. Whether modification of the evolutionary theory insists that God tweaks creation through evolution or through supernatural intervention, initially, God had to create an environment that contained evil.
In addition, they usually deny the concept of humanity’s contribution to evil in the world through the fall. With evolution, the physical human body is simply a product of evolution. At some point God gave humans his image and continued to call creation good. Then came the fall with the result that God cursed the ground (Gen 3:17) because of human sinfulness. It is illogical to impute the effects of the fall back in time and still call creation good.
While theodicies do not directly require any mention of the value of human beings, it is important to understand that the effects of evolutionary theodicies devalue humans. Humans are nothing more than sentient beings that have more intelligence than others do. They ignore or consider accountability for sin unimportant.
The creation of the earth, flora, and fauna over a very long time, with evil a part of its framework before the appearance of humans is foundational to evolutionary theodicies. Why would God call it good with this evil present? This casts dispersion on the Bible, God’s word. The account of Genesis explains a day in three ways for each day of creation. An evening after the first light, a morning, then the day is numbered. Detractors of this account rely on empirical data to deny a twenty-four hour day. Science therefore, becomes a higher authority than the Bible even though scientific attempts to discredit creation “are embarrassed by inevitable reversals of scientific opinion.”[44] They acknowledge God could have created the earth with apparent age but deny God’s goodness by saying that would be deceptive.[45] Yet apparent age is a logical explanation for creation. Would it not be more deceptive for God to lie about the six days when he could have explained evolution? As has been pointed out, the fall could not explain the evils of the world before the introduction of humans. This puts Genesis 1 – 3 in question. If this is in question, then all miracles in the Bible are in question as empirical evidence denies every one. If these are in question, then even the need for a Savior is in question as humans are no more than animals. The solution for evil through Jesus Christ is in question, as is his resurrection. Christian are to be pitied more than any others as we have no real hope and have even made God out to be a liar (1 Cor 15:12-18). Pushed to this logical conclusion, all evolutionary theodicies deny the existence of the Christian God, whether they explicitly say so or not.
 


[1] J. S. Feinberg, “Theodicy,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ed. Walter A. Elwell, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001), 1184. 
[2] Ibid.
[3] Ibid, 1184-85.
[4] Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2013), 353. Kindle.
[5] George John Romanes, A Candid Examination of Theism (Boston: Houghton, Osgood, and Company, 1878), 2412-2417, Kindle
[6] Christopher Southgate, “Re-Reading Genesis, John, and Job: A Christian Response to Darwinism,” Zygon 46, no. 2 (June 2011): 377.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Christopher Southgate, “God and Evolutionary Evil: Theodicy in the Light of Darwinism,” Zygon 37, no. 4 (December 2002): 808.
[9] J. Corabi, “Intelligent Design and Theodicy,” Religious Studies 45, no. 1 (2009): 8, accessed June 20, 2014, ProQuest.
[10] Southgate, “God and Evolutionary Evil,” 808-9.
[11] Ibid, 809.
[12] Robin Attfield, “Evolution, Theodicy and Value,” The Heythrop Journal 41, no. 3 (July 2000): 283.
[13] John C. Polkinghorne, Science and Providence: God's Interaction with the World, Templeton ed. (Philadelphia: Templeton Press, 2005), 78.
[14] Southgate, “God and Evolutionary Evil,” 809.
[15] Ibid, 810.
[16] The New Oxford American Dictionary, 3rd ed., s.v. “Deism,” Kindle.
[17] Millard Erickson, Christian Theology, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2013), 353, Kindle.
[18] Ibid.
[19] Ibid, 353-354.
[20] Attfield, 288.
[21] Southgate, “Re-Reading Genesis, John, and Job,” 372.
[22] Nicolaas Vorster “The Augustinian Type of Theodicy: Is It Outdated?” Journal Of Reformed Theology 5, no. 1 (2011): 31. 
[23] Michael N. Keas, review of The End Of Christianity: Finding a Good God in an Evil World by William A. Dembski, “Collins and Dembski Offer Their Views of Theodicy and God's Creative Plan,” Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 62, no. 3 (September 2010): 215.
[24] Attfield, 281.
[25] Vorster, 43.
[26] Ibid.
[27] Jayna L Ditty and Philip A Rolnick, “Keeping Faith: Evolution and Theology,” Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 13, no. 2 (Spring 2010): 140, accessed June 22, 2014, http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/journals/logos/v013/13.2.ditty.html.
[28] Vorster, 48.
[29] Corabi, 3-4, ProQuest.
[30] Corabi, 7, ProQuest.
[31] Southgate, “Re-Reading Genesis, John, and Job,” 382).
[32] Marius C. Felderhof, “Evil: Theodicy or Resistance?” Scottish Journal of Theology 57, no. 4 (2004): 400, accessed June 20, 2014, http://search.proquest.com/docview/222351791?accountid=12085.
[33] Vorster, 28.
[34] Ibid, 27.
[35] Ibid, 28-29
[36] Denis O Lamoureux, “Darwinian Theological Insights: Toward an Intellectually Fulfilled Christian Theism-Part II,” Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 64, no. 3 (September 2012): 173.
[37] John Hick, Evil and the God of Love, Reissue ed. (Thetford, Norfolk: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 38.
[38] Vorster, 33.
[39] Vorster, 34.
[40] Vorster, 32.
[41] Vorster, 37.
[42] Vorster, 37.
[43] Vorster, 38.
[44] C. F. H. Henry, “Image of God,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ed. Walter A. Elwell, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001), 593.
[45] Erickson, 352.

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